Defining Quality Management Concepts, Quality Objectives & Standards

Defining Quality Management Concepts, Quality Objectives & Standards
Defining Quality Management Concepts, Quality Objectives & Standards
  1. Quality Management System (QMS)

The system of creating and following organizational Policies and Procedures and tailoring them to ensure the Project also meets the needs of the Customer

  1. Quality Assurance (QA)

Part of the QMS that aims to provide confidence that Quality requirements are being fulfilled and is targeted at Predicting and Preventing errors/defects before their occurrence

  1. Quality Control (QC)

Part of the QMS focused on fulfilling Quality requirements by Evaluating and Comparing Actual Performance parameters with the Requirements or Specifications

  1. Continuous Improvement

An ongoing effort to improve Products, Services or Processes.  Achieved through several tools, egg PDCA, TQM, etc.

PDCA Cycle. The Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle, also known as Deming Cycle or Shewhart Cycle:

Plan ˃ Do ˃ Check ˃ Act

  1. Total Quality Management (TQM)

A management approach in which All Members of an Organization (Project Team in this case) participate in improving Processes, Products, Services, and the Culture in which they work4

  1. Quality Inspection

An Evaluation or Assessment on Products involving Measurements and Testing

  • Establishes Conformance to Customer Requirements through drive tests, measurement/weighing and inspecting
  • Results in Accepted or Rejected Deliverables/Products
  1. Quality Audit

An evaluation of an Organization, System, Process, Project or Production Line involving interviewing, checking records and making observations etc.

  • Results in Compliance or Non-compliance


Checking thickness of a rod: inspection

Validating the shirt cutting methodology: audit

Weighing the cement bag: inspection

Verifying cupboard dimensions: inspection

Review of on-line ticket purchasing; audit

Interview and selection for IT job: inspection

Pre-Dispatch Inspection (PDI) on a Production Line: inspection

ISO 9001: Audit

  1. Quality& Grade

Quality is fulfilment of the Customer Requirements while Grade is the availability of number of facilities or features in a product

  • A Low-Grade Product can have High Quality
  1. Accuracy & Precision

Accuracy is nearness to a target (desired) value for measurements or data while Precision is the repeatability of a measurement or data.  Accuracy is mostly dependent on the person measuring (performing) while Precision is mostly dependent of the measuring tool

Defining Quality Management Concepts, Quality Objectives & Standards
Defining Quality Management Concepts, Quality Objectives & Standards
Cost of Quality (COQ)

Costs required to ensure that Product will meet the Requirements and it has got Minimum Defects (high acceptability)

  • Involves both Cost of (ensuring) Good Quality and facing the consequences of Bad Quality
Cost of Poor Quality
  • Low productivity
  • Increased inspections
  • Cost overruns
  • Disturbed cash flows
  • Delays in product delivery
  • Bad market reputation
  • Disagreements over product acceptances
  • Loss of business

Reduction in expected sales numbers

Defining Quality Management Concepts, Quality Objectives & Standards
Defining Quality Management Concepts, Quality Objectives & Standards

Quality Objectives

Quality Objectives are the goals set for the Project Deliverables (products, services and results) or its Processes.  Some of the common types of quality objectives on a construction project could be:

  • Overall Ensure grade-1 construction and furnishing standards
  • Defects A goal for conformance to specifications such as 0.1% of items failing quality control and 0% of products being shipped with a defect (Seller’s Objective in a procurement contract to supply some furnishing materials)
  • Timeliness On-time performance of activities, with less than 1% lateness
  • Safety Zero safety incidents
  • Accuracy (If anything better than the contractual requirement)
  • Precision (If anything better than the contractual requirement)
  • Customer Satisfaction Meet or exceed Customer Satisfaction

Quality Standards

Quality Standards (QS)are industrial standards, and governmental, legal, or regulatory constraints that apply to the project.  For example, on a construction project in Islamabad, following QS may apply:

Standard and Area
  • BSI or ASTM Building Materials, Ancillary Systems & Soil Testing
  • CDA Byelaws Building Plans
  • PEC Standards Civil Engineering including services
  • PPRA Rules Procurements
  • EPA Standards Environment
  • OHS Health & Safety of workers at the project site
  • Any Customer’s Quality Standards agreed and written in the Contract or discovered while Collecting Customer’s Requirements
Following Standards stand for;
  1. BSI: British Standards Institution
  2. ASTM: American Society for Testing & Materials
  3. PEC: Pakistan Engineering Council
  4. EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
  5. OHS: Occupational Health & Safety

Quality Roles & Responsibilities

Quality Planning and Implementation requires a team who are to perform the following Roles & Responsibilities.  Who is to perform which responsibility is clearly mentioned in the Quality Management Plan:

  • Quality Policy
  • Quality Management
  • Quality Planning
  • Quality Assurance
  • Quality Audits
  • Quality Control
  • Quality Inspections
  • Quality Reports

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