Use of Tuckman’s Model in Development of Project Team

In Tuckman’s model a team goes through five stages of growth on their way to becoming a cohesive and productive team:

Use of Tuckman’s Model in Development of Project Team
Use of Tuckman’s Model in Development of Project Team
  1. Forming

The Project Manager provides the team with guidance and structure.

  1. Storming

If team members are not collaborative or open to differing ideas and perspectives, the environment can become counterproductive, leading to conflicts. The Project Manager keeps the team focused and provides encouragement

Storming stage example

A newly formed project team is arguing about the office space, meeting schedule, and questioning the abilities of individuals whom they have not worked before. The team is passing through the storming stage.

  1. Norming stage Example

A newly formed project team is beginning to build good working relationships and learn to trust the project manager and each other. This is passing through norming stage.

  1. Performing

The Team starts performing as a well-organized unit. The team members work through issues smoothly and effectively.

  1. Adjourning

In this stage project team is responsible for completing the work and deliver it on time.

What does HR Planning entail?
  1. Identifying the Required Skills

This was done when Estimating Resources and establishing Resources Requirements.

  1. Recruiting Personnel

Project Team members who best meet the skill requirements are recruited or hired or loaned from other departments

  1. Assigning Responsibility

Responsibilities are clearly assigned, ensuring that there is only one person Accountable for any one task to avoid confusion about who is ultimately in charge or has authority for the work.  RAM and RACI Tools help.

  1. Levelling Resources

This is removal of over-allocation of resources (see figure opposite)

  1. Adjusting Project Schedule

Project Schedule adjusted based on availability of Resources; e.g. after Resource Levelling

  1. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

A grid that shows the project HR assigned to (and made Responsible for) each activity.  HR are either tick marked (✔) or specified with Primary (P) and Secondary (S) Responsibility

  1. Responsible-Accountable-Consult-Inform (RACI) Chart

A type of RAM that uses these four statuses to define the involvement of stakeholders or project HR in Project activities

Risk Management Situations
Situation A

An Emergent Risk (a New Risk, i.e. a risk not listed in the Risk Register), is identified or discovered

Monitoring & Control Actions

  • Analyze and qualify the risk, going through the process of Qualitative risk analysis, followed by Quantitative risk analysis if required, depending on the Risk Score
  • Plan a Risk Response if Score Med or High
  • Allocate CR (unless it is decided to Accept the risk Passively in which case no CR will be allocated)
  • Update Risk Register
Situation B

A previously identified Risk, budgeted with CR, has occurred

  • Implement the Risk Response Plan as devised and defined in the Risk Register
  • Monitor Residual & Secondary Risks
  • Use the CR set aside for the Risk
  • Update the Risk Register
Situation C

A previously identified Risk, not budgeted with CR


An Emergent Risk (Unknown Risk or Unknown Unknown) has occurred

  • Take corrective actions to minimize the impact of the Risk
  • Update the Risk Register
  • Use MR if approved and released by the management of the performing organization
Situation D

A previously identified Risk, budgeted with CR, does not occur

  • Return the associated CR to the company
  • Update the Risk Register

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